Glucose is the main source of energy for the human body. Glucose is converted either into glycogen to be stocked in the liver or into triglycerides to be stocked in fatty tissues. Glucose concentration in blood is regulated by several hormones, including two antagonists: insulin and glucagon.
Quantification of glucose in blood is used to diagnose metabolic carbohydrates disorders such as diabetes, neonatal glycaemia, idiopathic hypoglycemia and pancreatic disease.
The main physiological troubles are linked to hyperglycaemia (type I Diabetes mellitus and type II Diabetes mellitus). Type I diabetes mellitus is insulin-dependent, and appears mainly before 30 years old. Type II diabetes mellitus is non-insulin-dependent, and usually appears after 40 years old, but can occur earlier for obese people. Other diabetes have secondary origin, and appear after endocrinal or hepatic diseases.